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Sea Israel

This enigmatic Dead Sea.

Dead Sea in Israel

Probably none of the seas in the world has as many names as the Dead Sea. It is called the Salt Sea at a high concentration of salt in water (it is about 32%). In the Bible, the Dead Sea is referred to as the Steppe, it is the East Sea.A Jewish holy book (Talmud) is called Sodom Dead Sea. Today it is a great salt lake in the Promised Land (Eretz Yisrael), whose center was abroad, running from north to south, between the two countries, Jordan and Israel.Pleistocene era was the beginning of this great salt lake. The reason was drying Sea of ​​siroafrikanskoy cracks. In the south of the Dead Sea is shallow. This part of the peninsula is separated and Lashon is the result of strong tremors, which occurred much later.This place is the location of the ancient cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, and not all researchers agree with this view. Some argue that these cities were a little further north.

To date, the area of ​​the Dead Sea is 930 m, the length of its 75 square meters.m and a maximum width dimension of about 17 km. The depth of the Dead Sea in different places is different, but the deepest point is about four hundred feet below sea level. This is the lowest point around the globe.The high salt content was the reason that there are no life forms in the sea, not counting the bacteria. This fact was the cause of the name of the Great Salt Lake - the Dead Sea.

Dead Sea in Israel

Since ancient times, people have inhabited the shores of the Dead Sea, located to the west, while the east coast remained reclusive until the XIII century BC, when there appeared the first state of Edom and Moab. Conquest of Canaan has brought some changes.On the west coast became part of the tribe of Judah wore, East Coast from the north - in the tribe wore Reuven, while from the south east coast of Moab, was monitored. Babylonian captivity of the Nabataeans provided an opportunity to take over the whole coast from the east.They began to mine the depths of the sea and asphalt carry him to Egypt where it was used mainly for mummification. At this time the West Coast divided between Edom (south) and Judah (the north).

The first mention of the Dead Sea was recorded in the "Metrology" of the ancient Greek scholar Aristotle, who was interested in the uniqueness of the Dead Sea. During the reign of Alexander Jannaeus, which lasted from 126 to 76 years. BC, all around the Dead Sea coast has passed into the power of the Jews. In Roman times, the Dead SeaAsphalt lake was named. The ancient Romans were well known physical properties of this reservoir. The mention of this can be found in the Roman scholar Pliny the writer. He is one of the first, along with the ancient physician Galen created the most detailed description of the natural features of the Dead Sea.

At the time of the revolt against the Roman Judea (Judean War I and the revolt of Bar Kochba revolt, it is also Jewish War II), the west coast has become a safe haven rebels, thanks to inaccessibility of this mountainous region and an abundance of caves. In the Age of Byzantium, the Dead Sea has become a pilgrimage site.From north to south, carried grain, and brought back salt. You can see this on the map of one of the oldest cities of Jordan unto Medeba, where the two ships sailing on the Dead Sea. In 1047 it was recorded modern Arabic name of the Dead Sea. It sounds like the Bahr-Meadow, it is the same Sea of ​​Lot.

1930 saw the construction of small hotels and   the first industrial enterprises for the processing of potash and bromine. This was made possible thanks to the initiative of Novomeisky. The mineral wealth of the Dead Sea used in enterprises located in the northern part of the West Coast (region of potassium).1937 was the opening of the potash plant in the south west coast (the area of ​​Sodom). In 1939 in the Jordan Valley was founded the first agricultural   commune in Israel (Kibbutz), which was characterized by the union of property and equality in employment and consumption.The war for independence and cut off the chemical companies Kaliya kibbutz of the Yishuv. The culprit was the Arab Legion. May 13, 1948, under cover of night, the evacuation of water, the Jewish workers and settlers in the area of ​​Sodom, which they defended until the end of the war.In September 1948 the operation was carried out "Lot", and then restore the land connection with Sodom. 1949 saw the capture of the IDF Ein Gedi, who was a member (on partition plan) to the Jewish state. It was here in 1953 was the basis of the same name of the commune (kibbutz).

Starting in the 50s began intensive construction of roads, which should connect the coastal areas with the interior of the country. In 1955, the paved trail Sodom, Beer-Sheva, 1956 Sodom-Ein Gedi in 1964 Sodom-Arad, and in 1967 Sodom-Eilat.Laying of roads gave rise to a higher power and chemical plants, development of infrastructure and economic growth area, which included medical and health centers and, of course, tourism.

In the late sixties in the town of Neve Zohar, which is located next to Sodom, were built the first large hotels, which house bath for therapeutic purposes.Over time, health and recreation centers from the Dead Sea (due to its unique healing properties) acquired international fame, especially in the treatment of psoriasis. Were opened resorts Ein Bokek and Hot Springs-Zohar, along with many other spas.In the Negev, was built a network of chemical plants, which processes primary materials. Due to intensive human activities, the Dead Sea from the south begins to dry out. This was due to the removal of most of the waters of the Jordan and its tributary the Yarmouk.   Urgent held a special channel through which water had to be moved from the northern part of the sea to the evaporating ponds potash plant in Sodom. In 1980, preparations began for the laying of the channel that connects the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea.The process was to prevent the eventual fall of water level in the Dead Sea and its tributary. Unfortunately, the project was shelved due to lack of funding.

1980 marked the launch of the first experimental industrial plant for processing of solar energy into electrical energy, in this case was used in a unique Israeli system of solar swimming pool.

On the shores of the Dead Sea there are many attractions that are worth a look.Kibbutz Ein Gedi, near which there is a reserve, a resort with hot springs, and the park. Kibbutz Kalia, Almog, Mitzpe Shalem. Qumran National Park hit unique architectural finds, and reserve-Eynot Tsukim sources, forming an oasis.

 The Red Sea

Cruise on the Red Sea.

In a tectonic depression located between the Arabian Peninsula and Africa, is an inland sea the Indian Ocean - Red. The Red Sea is considered one of the warmest and most saline seas.Washing the shores of Egypt and Sudan, Saudi Arabia and Eritrea, Yemen, Jordan and Israel, it connects the north to the Mediterranean Sea   through the Suez Canal. In the south, through the Babel-Mandeb, the Red Sea to the Arabian Sea beyond. Red Sea special.Its uniqueness lies in the fact that the water is crystal clear, thanks to the absence of sand and silt. This is due to the fact that it does not fall into the sea or a river, as is often the case with the seas.

If we talk about climate, then it is on the coast, even in the coldest period does not fall below twenty degrees.Weather is almost always warm and dry. The hottest month - August, with temperatures ranging from 30 to 35 degrees. In connection with this, off the coast of Egypt, water temperature, even in winter, stored up to 20 degrees in summer rises even higher (27gradusov).

The Red Seahas high concentration of salt in the water, about 42 grams per liter, because of the strong evaporation of warm water.

  On the photographs taken from space, the length of the Red Sea - 2350km, respectively, the width at the widest part - 350km. Depth in the central part of the sea is 3000 meters. If we consider theRed Sea from the geological point of view, it is situated on the border of the lithospheric plates (the African and Arabian) in the rift zone.

The Red Sea is considered one of the youngest seas.It was formed about forty million years ago, thanks to the emergence of the East African Rift, as a result of cracks in the crust because of the strong fluctuations in the soil. The separation of the African continental plate,   emerged to fill the gap gradually began to seawater.This process lasted for thousands of years, resulting in the Red Sea. The movement of plates is constant, in consequence of which the Red Sea (relatively flat) gradually diverge in hand, the speed difference is about one meter per century.

The northern part of the Red Sea, marked by two bays - Suez, the depth of which reaches eighty feet, and Aqaba (also known as Eilat), by which the fault is. It is due to a fault, the depth of the bay up to 1800 meters.The Sinai Peninsula, which is known worldwide resort of Sharm el-Sheik, share both the bay. In the northern part of the sea is a small number of islands, but closer to the south of the island are grouped in large numbers.The largest group of islands of Dahlak is located near the western sea.

One of the first mentions of the Red Sea meets the Greek historian Agatharchides, which amounted to a description in II century BC

  Unfortunately, the Red Seacontaminated, and blame not only vacationers who throw plastic bottles into the sea. There is plenty of evidence when the garbage dumped in the open with the ferries and boats into the sea.Bedouins for generations had to deal with organic matter, so it is very difficult to understand that plastic waste is causing great harm to the environment. This, a small number of people still catches of mollusks in the reserves, and coastal coral harm novice snorkellers.


Mediterranean Sea

In the journey across the Mediterranean Sea.

, Especially when wet and cold wind bring drizzle and sometimes rain and snow. The adjective "Mediterranean" is widely used in describing the climate and peoples, nations, and vegetation.The concept of "Mediterranean" suggests an association with a whole milestone in the history and way of   people's lives.

Mediterranean Sea, on the right, is considered one of the largest seas in the world. It shares some of the country and connects the other.Splits Europe, Asia and Africa, but at the same time is the link for Southern Europe, Northern Africa and Western Asia. The Mediterranean stretched from west to east, a distance of about 3700km, and, in the widest point (from north to south) about 1600km.North coast marked by such countries as Spain and France, Italy and Slovenia, Croatia and Yugoslavia, Greece and Albania. Israel, Lebanon, Syria and Turkey, leading to the sea from the east. And finally, on the south coast settled Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt. Mediterraneanconsidered to be an inland sea, as with other bodies of water it is associated only minor spills. The sea area of ​​about 2.5 million square meters in the west and it has access through the Strait of Gibraltar into the Atlantic Ocean. Strait of Gibraltar itself in the width reaches 14 km, while its depth is 400 meters.Dardanelles, situated on the north-east, in places narrows to 1.3 km and connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Sea of Marmara and the Bosphorus to the Black Sea displays. Connects the Mediterranean Sea in the south-east of the Red Sea through the Suez Canal.Of great importance to trade, shipping, and strategic goals, at all times, had three small water passage. Above them are constantly trying to control at different times from different countries. Was visited by the English and Russian, Turkish and French. Even during the Roman Empire the Romans calledMediterranean "our sea» (mare nostrum).

  Mediterranean coastline is indented with numerous protrusions of land, which, in turn, are divided into separate, isolated from each other area. For each such area has its own name.This category also includes the Ligurian Sea, located south of the Riviera, but the north of Corsica, an island lying between Italy, Sardinia and Sicily, Tyrrhenian Sea, Adriatic Sea, which gently washes the shores of Italy, Croatia and Slovenia, Albania and Yugoslavia;located between Greece and southern Italy Ionian Sea, located between the peninsular Greece and the island of Crete, the Cretan Sea and the Aegean Sea, conveniently located between Greece and Turkey.

We can distinguish several large bays, such as Alicante, located off the east coast of Spain.In the southern coast of France - Gulf of Lions, located between the two ledges south of the peninsula, the Gulf of Taranto, southern coast of Turkey - Antalya Iskanderun bays;in the center of the coast of Libya - Sidra and Gabes - at the south-eastern coast of Tunisia and the Gulf of Tunis - the north-east coast of this country.

Initially, the Mediterranean Sea, which is a relic of the ancient Tethys Ocean was much wider, extending far to the east.This category includes such relics of the sea as the Aral and Caspian Sea, the Marmara and Black. They are confined to the deepest hollows of the ancient Tethys Ocean.It is possible that Tethys was once completely surrounded by land, and vrayone Strait of Gibraltar, between the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa, there was an isthmus, like that which connected Asia Minor from the south-eastern Europe.As a hypothesis, can be taken and the formation of the Bosporus, Gibraltar and the Dardanelles on the site of flooding of river valleys. At the same time many island chains (especially in the Aegean Sea), connected to the mainland.

The most important of the Mediterranean are the western and eastern basin, the boundary between them passes through the protrusion of Calabria peninsula, Sicily and the underwater bank Adventure, a depth of about four hundred meters, and the length of runs for 150km from Sicily to Cape Bon, located in TUNISA. In the area of ​​both basins are smaller, which are corresponding names of the seas: Aegean, Adriatic, etc. West Basin have lower water temperature, it's a bit fresh, than in the eastern basin.The average temperature of the surface layer in the west at about 12 degrees in February and 24 degrees in August, while in the east, respectively, three degrees higher (17 and 27). Gulf of Lions in the Mediterranean Sea is considered one of the most cold and storm.The salinity of the sea does not have permanent numbers, its range varies widely, due to receipt of the Atlantic Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar, the water with less salt.

The tides here do not reach great heights, but in narrow passages, especially during a full moon, they are quite substantial. In the straits, according to the observations,   there are fairly strong currents that are directed toward both the Mediterranean and back.Due to increased evaporation, which is higher than in the Black Sea or the Atlantic Ocean, the Straits there are surface currents, which are in the Mediterranean Sea fresh water.Under the surface currents at depth are generated conflicting currents that do not compensate for the flow of water at the surface.

The bottom of the Mediterranean Sea, mainly composed of carbonate silt yellow, under which lies a blue mud.The closer to the mouths of major rivers, blue mud covered deltaic deposits, which occupy a large area.

Mediterranean Sea has a different depth. The most significant mark registered in Gellenskom Trench on the south side of Greece. It was about 5121 m.In the western basin, the average depth was measured at 1430m, and its most shallow part (Adriatic Sea) - 242m.

The total area of ​​the bottom of the Mediterranean marked by elevated areas divided by relief, which form the top of the island.Not all of them, but most of them are of volcanic origin.It is an island Alboran (East Strait of Gibraltar), a group of the Balearic Islands, which include Menorca, Mallorca, Ibiza and Formentera (east of the Iberian Peninsula), characterized by mountainous Corsica and Sardinia (west of the peninsula).It may also include small islands and the same area: Capri, Elba, Pontsianskie and Ischia. Closer to the north of Sicily, the island of Stromboli and Lipari, and within the Eastern Mediterranean island of Malta basin, located closer to the south of Sicily. Located east of the island of Crete and Cyprus.

Ionian, Cretan and Aegean Sea islands can differ in many small sizes. Among these islands can be identified which are to the west of mainland Greece, the Ionian Islands, situated to the east of the Peloponnese - Rhodes and the Cyclades, situated at the south-western coast of Turkey.

In the Mediterranean Sea flow into larger rivers, such as the Ebro (Spain), Rhône (France), Arno, Tiber, and Volturno (Italy). Tagliamento River and the Po (Italy), as well as the Isonzo (the border of Italy and Slovenia) flow into the Adriatic Sea.Aegean includes the Vardar River (Greece, Macedonia), Strum, she's the Strymon, No, she's Nestos (Bulgaria, Greece). The only major river is the Nile Mediterranean, which empties into the sea from the south.

Mediterraneancan be gentle, warm and affectionate, but, just like any other sea, at certain times of the year may differ indomitable temper and huge surging breaker. Humans have long been attracted to the Mediterranean favorable, mild climate with long hot dry summers and sunny.In addition, the cool and wet winter here is so short. Semiarid and arid climatic features are inherent in particular the southern and eastern Mediterranean. For the Mediterranean climate, an abundance of clear and sunny days is quite typical. Despite this, the winter is very cold

Speaking ofMediterranean Sea, not to mention about the landscape coast.Special attraction differ Italian and French Riviera, near Naples area, the numerous islands on the Adriatic coast of Croatia, bordering Lebanon and Greece, which is famous for its steep slopes of the mountains, descending to the sea. The trade routes passing through the main islandMediterranean Sea, and the culture was distributed   from the Middle East via Egypt and Crete, in Greece, Spain, Rome and France. There was another trade route - in Morokko from Egypt.

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